Day3

  • Gomal University,Pakistan
  • Title:Characterization of pollen profile of Apis mellifera L. in arid region of Pakistan
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Abstract:
Honeybees rely exclusively on pollen and nectar-producing plants for strengthening their colonies and manufacturing honey. Little is known about the indigenous melliferous flora of arid zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) which is crucial for honey production and how different pollen assessment techniques effect the identification of indigenous melliferous pollen flora. Visual survey and loads ensnaring through pollen traps were used to identify the botanical profile of melliferous pollen flora of Dera Ismail Khan (DIKhan), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The test time extended for two consecutive years 2018 and 2019. The study revealed 56 plant species as pollen flora with 18 significant pollen producing species in visual survey technique while 8 species as predominant flora in pollen trapping technique. The major pollen species found common in both the techniques were Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., Trifolium alaxandrinum L., Zea mays L., Acacia modesta L., Citrus aurantium L., Euclyptus spp., and Morus alba L. Pollen interception and palynological analysis of pollen were found to be more reliable techniques as compared to focal observations. More than fifty % differences were found by comparing the results of the visual survey and pollen trapping technique in major flora of DIKhan. Based on the availability, utility status and flowering duration of apiphilic flora, mid-February to mid-May was found to be a significant pollen flow period in the study area. Maximum benefit can be taken in this period through trapping ample amount of pollen and stored for using in artificial diets, selling and feeding bees during dearth period.

  • , University of Warsaw, Poland
  • Title: Reaction of Phenols with 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (Dpph•) In Alcohols – The Mechanism Depends on the Phenol Concentration
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Abstract:
Many assays used for the assessment of radical scavenging employ the artificial radicals:
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (dpph•) and radical cation formed from 2,2′-azino-
bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ABTS+•. Both species are strongly electron deficient,thus,the overall kinetics for their reactions with phenolic antioxidants contain a strong component of two mechanisms: Sequential Proton-Loss Electron-Transfer1-3 and Hydrogen Atom Transfer. In non-polar solvents phenols (ArOH) react with dpph• via HAT mechanism, while in polar, protic solvents the reaction is much faster due to participation of SPLET mechanism (see Fig. 1A). In our work we measured the absolute rate constants for reaction of dpph• with series of phenols presented in Fig. 1B in methanol, and acidified methanol(in order to eliminate SPLET). We present preliminary results obtained for five phenols (Fig. 1B). Phenols 3-5 react with dpph• 105 times faster than 1 and 2. The addition of acetic acid causes a 20 to 100-fold reduction in the reaction rate constant. Our results show a strong dependence of the reaction rate on the polarity of the solvent, pH and, surprisingly, in neat methanol the order of the reaction with respect to ArOH concentration changes from 1 to 0.5 with increasing dilution of ArOH. As the SPLET mechanism dominates, the kinetic rate low is:-d[dpph•]/dt=n(kHAT[ArOH]+kET[ArO‾])[dpph•]
with increasing component kET[ArO‾], following the law of dilution:[ArO‾] = (Ka[ArOH])1/2.

  • University of Arkansas, United States
  • Title:Phytogenic Additives Improve Broiler Growth Performance via Modulation of Hypothalamic and Intermediary Metabolism-Related Signaling Pathways
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Abstract:
The worldwide concerns and heightened sensitivity to the emerging drug- resistant superbugs have energized scientists to search for new alternatives for in-feed antibiotic growth promotor. Powered by consumer demand for natural products and due to their beneficial effects on growth performances, phytogenics became very popular and favorable alternatives. Yet, their mode of action was not fully defined. Here, we showed that supplementation of phytogenics in water or in feed improves
feed efficiency in broilers and modulates hypothalamic and peripheral metabolic pathways (reduction of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, mobilization of fat store, and enhancement of muscle protein synthesis), which might explain, at least partly, their effect on feed efficiency improvement in broilers.

Biography:
Sami Dridi, Professor of Molecular Genetics in the CEPS at the University of Arkansas, United States, is one of the pioneer researchers who investigates the molecular mechanisms of heat stress responses and metabolic disorders in poultry for subsequent development of nutritional mechanism-based strategies to improve poultry production sustainability and to feed the future. He received his M.S., Ph.D., and HDR in France. He served as a quality inspector in poultry industry, and he joined several international labs as postdoc/PI such as UNC Chapel Hill, UK, WVU, KUL Belgium, ENITAB and ENVN France.

  • Nestlé Institute of Food Safety & Analytical Sciences,Switzerland.
  • Title:Challenge to evaluate regulatory compliance for nutrients in infant formulas with current state-of-the-art analytical reference methods
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Abstract:
To ensure products meet the highest standards, the global infant formula industry works to ensure a thorough understanding of the capability of an analytical method (that is the ability of a method to produce test results within the regulatory limits) as an additional key parameter when establishing compositional criteria for nutrients in infant formula.
All analytical test methods have some uncertainty. The key factor is understanding method variability in the context of overall variability, which also includes variation in raw materials/ingredients and the manufacturing process. The overall variability must fit within the regulatory limits.
By using existing performance data of recently established international Official Methods/Standards it was shown that for products with a manufacturing target at the midpoint of regulations, the probability of obtaining an analytical result outside the regulatory requirements due to analytical variation of the method alone can be as high as 19%. This can cause legal uncertainties.
This work supports a risk management approach that takes into consideration the analytical method capability when establishing regulatory limits for nutrients in infant formulas.

Biography:
Erik J.M. Konings PhD is Program Manager at Nestlé Research where he provides leadership to global quality, laboratory and regulatory teams to engage in strategic local activities to drive alignment/harmonization of analytical methods and partners with government and non-government organizations in the development of standards for analytical methods. He holds an MSc in Epidemiology and PhD in Health Sciences from Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

  • University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Title:Assessment of Productivity and Profitability of Wheat Using Nutrient Expert® -Wheat Model in Jhapa District of Nepal
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Abstract:
Wheat is the third most important cereal crop in Nepal after rice and maize both in area and production, but its productivity of 2.3 tonne ha−1 is very less compared to other developed countries (6 tonne ha−1 for Switzerland and China) in the world. The main cause of low wheat yield in Nepal is the improper and inadequate use of fertilizer devoid of site specific nutrient management practices. Therefore, a farmers’ field experiment was conducted during November 2015 to April 2016 to rectify the best fertilizer management options at two sites of Damak and Gauradaha in Jhapa district in eastern-Terai of Nepal using Nutrient Expert®-Wheat model. The research was accomplished in Randomized Complete Block Design with 2 treatments and 20 replications, considering farmers’ field as replication. Two treatments included in the experimentation were NE® (Nutrient Expert Recommendation) and FFP (Farmer’s Fertilizer Practices). The statistical result revealed the highly significant difference in terms of number of effective tiller m−2, plant height, filled grain per spike, spike length, grain, straw and biological yields and harvest index. The highest yield (4.71 tonne ha−1) was obtained from NE field than FFP (2.99 tonne ha−1). On an average, NE based practices produced 58 % higher yield in comparison to FFP. NE based treatment produced significantly higher biomass yield, yield attributes and cost-benefit ratio than FFP treatments. Field experiment validation confirmed that the Nutrient Expert® Wheat model could be used as the most adoptable and practical precision decision support system tool to make a more authentic fertilizer recommendation in eastern-Terai of Nepal.

Biography:
Ram Datta Bhatta was born on 20th March 1994 at Shuklaphanta Municipality, Kanchanpur, Nepal. He is the youngest son among two sons of Mr. Jaya Raj Bhatta and Mrs. Shanti Devi Bhatta. He has completed his secondary education from Anirudra Higher Secondary School, Bansamiti, Kanchanpur in 2009. He joined to Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Lamjung Campus, Sundar Bazzar in 2013 for the course of B.Sc Ag. He completed his bachelor’s degree with a prestigious merit position in 2017. After completion of B.Sc. Ag, he joined as a Food Security Field support Specialist (FSFSS) in Peace Corps, Nepal in 2018. In 2018 he joined by free competition to peruse a Master of Science degree in Agronomy, at IAAS, Kritipur, Kathmandu and completed his Msc. Ag in agronomy in 2020 with a prestigious merit position. He has participated many training, workshop and seminar on agriculture research and extension technologies.

  • University of São Paulo, Brazil
  • Title:The Role of the Brazilian Flora in the Chemical Profile and Biological Activities of Propolis
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Abstract:
Propolis is a bee product containing plant resins and beeswax. Propolis and its isolated constituents exert biological effects such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetics, immunomodulatory, wound healing, antitumor and antiulcer. These effects are accounted for substances contained in resins collected by bee foragers from plant exudates or young tissues. In Brazil, several propolis types from stingless bees (meliponines) and Africanized honey bees are produced in commercial scale. An emerging market of propolis from stingless bees is gaining relevance among apiculturists in Brazil. Several papers have investigated the composition and medicinal properties of meliponine propolis from several parts of the country. Comparing with honey bee propolis, similarities and differences have been noticed in the composition of Brazilian meliponine propolis. Two types of Brazilian propolis from honey bees stand out due to the amounts produced and commercialized, both in the domestic and international markets: a) green propolis, produced in southeast and Central Brazil; b) red propolis, from northeast mangroves. The former contains resin from Baccharis dracunculifolia and the latte, resins from Dalbergia ecastapyllum. Artepillin c, from Brazilian green propolis, is one the two propolis constituents most studied for their biological properties. Red propolis contains chiefly chalcones, isoflavones and pterocarpans. Other types of Brazilian honey bee propolis have been characterized: a) green propolis, derived from Mimosa tenuiflora, produced in dry forests from the northeast semi-arid; dark propolis from northeast; b) black propolis from the Amazonian region, containing resin derived from Clusia species; c) yellow propolis from the “Pantanal” biome (southwest); d) brown propolis from the south, with varied composition and resins from Araucaria, Baccharis and Populus. A propolis produced in the Ceará state (northeast) contains triterpenoids and of phenolic substances, mainly flavonoids, such as chalcones, flavanones and flavonols (derivatives of kaempferol, quercetin, isorhametin and myricetin). The propolis extract has high antioxidant activity. Several constituents isolated flavonoids from Ceará propolis have weak anti-HIV activity (17%-44% inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase), while isorhamnetin has moderate activity (57% inhibition).

Biography:
Antonio Salatino (AS) is Senior Professor at the Department of Botany of the University of São Paulo (USP). He got Master’s Degree and PhD in the Institute of Biosciences of USP, with advisory by Prof. Otto Richard Gottlieb. He carried out post-doctorate programs at the University of Austin (Texas), with Dr. Tom J. Mabry (chemistry of flavonoids) and at the University of Athens (Georgia), with Dr. David E. Giannasi (molecular phylogeny). AS has been a collegiate member at Brazilian institutions for research fostering. He was coordinator of the post-graduation program in Botany at USP and head of its Botany Department. AS pioneered in Brazil some research topics, such as systematic studies of surface wax constituents and flavonoids. He was also one the first researchers to develop studies of plant molecular

  • Federal University of Amazonas, Brazil
  • Title:Changes in Nutrient Absorption in Children and Adolescents Caused Fructans, Especially Fructooligosaccharides and Inulin
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Abstract:
Introduction: Fructans, such as inulin and fructooligosaccharides (FOS), have several effects on human health owing to their prebiotic character, including anti-microbial and anti- cancer effects, and to their influence on the absorption of minerals, which is very important in childhood and adolescence.
Objective: Our aim was to review the role of some fructans in the absorption of vitamins and minerals in children and adolescents.
Methods: We conducted a narrative review of the absorption of nutrients with fructans. We collected quantitative data for our thematic analysis, which was performed using the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Web of Science, and Scopus from January 2000 and January 2019. This review comprises a total of 10 articles.
Results: Few studies were found regarding the use of prebiotics and nutrient absorption in children. Studies on calcium, iron, magnesium, and vitamin D were the most prevalent. Some studies reported that FOS appears to increase calcium uptake in the gut and stimulates the growth of bifidobacterium in the colon, reducing iron intake by enteric
pathogens, and increasing the absorption of these minerals. Others reported an improvement in the absorption of vitamin D and E with inulin.
Conclusion: Consumption of fructans improves the health of the microbiota, altering the absorption of some nutrients

  • Food and Drug Administration, USA
  • Title:Expanding the toolbox for food microbiologists with new stable fluorescent laboratory control strains
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Abstract:
Bacterial control strains are a critical component in microbiological methods, ensuring the media, reagents and related components of a test method are performing in a manner to ensure the quality of the analytical results. The use of naturally occurring bacterial strains as positive controls during testing is counter-indicated due to the risk of sample cross-contamination. Taking advantage of the target site specificity of transposon Tn7, we developed a collection of strains which express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) at high-levels, permitting the rapid screening of the following species on selective or non-selective agar plates: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gaminara, S. Mbandaka, S. Tennessee, S. Minnesota, S. Senftenberg and S. Typhimurium. These new engineered strains that fluoresce when irradiated with Ultraviolet light, are easily identified and differentiated from naturally occurring pathogens. Importantly, performance testing in our laboratory and several FDA field laboratories showed that none of those strains containing the GFP marker displayed the potential of becoming a mixed population of fluorescent and non-fluorescent cells, making them suitable laboratory control strains for food microbiologists. We are employing the same approach to engineer additional reference strains for the FDAs’ Compendium of Microbiological Methods, the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM), to exhibit the same stable fluorescent phenotype. Having a suite of control strains with stable, easily identifiable phenotypes like fluorescence eliminates the need to perform the time consuming and expensive confirmatory testing required when naturally occurring bacterial strains are used in microbial methods.

Biography:
Dr. Rachel Binet has been with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) since 2009 and currently serves as a Research Microbiologist in the Microbiological Methods Development Branch, within the Division of Microbiology.
Dr. Binet was trained as a microbiologist at the Institute Pasteur in France and received her M.Sc. in Microbiology in 1994 and her Ph.D. in Microbiology in 1998. She began her career using Genetics strategies to explore the physiology of various Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Shigella and Chlamydia. At FDA her research continues to concentrate on Microbial Genetics and Physiology, with the addition of Genomics and Metagenomics as tools to improve the recovery yield of pathogenic E. coli, Shigella and Salmonella from contaminated food products.
Dr. Binet serves as expert in committees related to laboratory biosafety and security at FDA and on microbial methods for CFSAN and for the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

  • University of Manitoba,Canada
  • Title:Hypoglycemic and anti-insulin resistant effects of Saskatoon berry and its active components in Western diet-induced obese and insulin resistance mice and relationship with gut microbiota
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Abstract:
Diabetes becomes epidemic in worldwide countries. Nine out of ten diabetic patients are type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D is characterized by insulin resistance and obesity. Uncontrolled diabetes leads serious consequences including heart attack, stroke, chronic renal failure, blindness and low limb amputation. Diabetes often requires lifetime treatment. Most of hypoglycemic medications have side effects. Natural foods or nutraceuticals with hypoglycemic potential are expected to provide a safer management for diabetic patients. Saskatoon berry is a traditional food of First Nations people in North America, and has abundant amounts of anthocyanins, including cyanidin-3-glucose (C3G). Our previous studies demonstrated Saskatoon berry powder (SBp) attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation, but did not alter glucose metabolism in genetic db/db diabetic mice. We recently examined the effects of SBp and C3G on glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, vascular inflammation, and intestinal microbiota in diet-induced insulin resistant mice, a model for T2D. Male C57 BL/6J mice were fed control diet, high fat-high sucrose (HFHS) diet, HFHS+5% SBp (HFHS+B) or HFHS+C3G in a dosage comparable to that in 5% SBp for 12-15 weeks. The composition of bacterial community in mouse stool was characterized using the Illumina sequencing of V4 region of 16S rRNA gene. HFHS diet increased body weight, fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, monocyte adhesion, tumor necrosis factor-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor in plasma or aortae, but not body weights, compared to the control diet. HFHS+B or HFHS+C3G diet postponed the increase in body weight, suppressed HFHS diet-induced disorders in insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and vascular inflammation. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes in the HFHS group was higher than that in the control group (p<0.01), and that in the HFHS+B or HFHS+C3G group was lower than that in the HFHS group (p<0.05). The abundances of S24-7 family bacteria negatively correlated with all tested metabolic or inflammatory variables and body weights of mice. The results suggest that Saskatoon berry and its component, C3G, are able to reduce HFHS diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and vascular inflammation in mice with T2D. The beneficial effects of SBp and C3G may result, at least in part, from their impact on gut microbiota. Biography:
Dr. Garry Shen is a Tenured Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, and Adjunct professor in Departments of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences in University of Manitoba. He received his doctoral degrees in Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and received research trainings in University of Iowa, Cleveland Clinic Research Institute, University of Alberta and Joslin Diabetes Center in Harvard Medical School. He has been a faculty member in University of Manitoba since 1991 and currently served as the Co-Chair of Endocrine Research Group and the Associate Director of Diabetes Research Group in the University of Manitoba. He has published >130 full sizes paper or books and >180 abstracts. He has received a numbers of career awards including Alberta Heritage Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, New Investigator Award from Canadian Lipoprotein Conference and Iacocca Visiting Professor Award from Joslin Diabetes Center. He is serving as the Editor-in-Chief of Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets Journal and National Counselor of Canadian Society of Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. His research program has been supported by Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Public Health Agency of Canada, Diabetes Canada, the Lawson Foundation, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

  • Johns Hopkins University, USA
  • Title:Preparation of Corn Stover Nanocellulose and Properties Characterization Using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Instron Mechanical Measurements, Rheometry, and Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS)
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Abstract:
Agricultural waste corn stover has very little value but can be good renewable, biodegradable, and inexpensive source to produce value-added products such as cellulose and nanocellulose. Cellulose was extracted from corn stover by the processes of alkali treatment and delignification, resulting in a >93% purity. The particle size of the extracted cellulose was reduced by mechanical shearing through high pressure homogenization. When passing through a homogenizer thirty times, the cellulose nanofibril (CNF) can be obtained. The diameters of the CNF ranged between 5 – 50 nm, and the lengths were microns. The mechanical properties of the films, made by corn stover cellulose, with and without high pressure homogenization shearing were evaluated using an Instron instrument. The films made by cellulose without shearing exhibited weaker mechanical properties, while the CNF films exhibited stronger mechanical properties. The linear rheological properties of CNF suspensions were investigated using mechanical rheometry and results show solid-like viscoelastic behavior. The microrheology of corn stover CNF suspensions was investigated by the novel technique diffusion wave spectroscopy (DWS) and compared with mechanical rheometry measuremants. DWS microrheology measurements were in excellent agreement with the conventional mechanical rheological studies for corn stover CNF. By comparing the mean-square displacement (MSD) of the microbeads embedded in five concentrations of corn stover CNF, we found that the suspensions exhibited slight heterogeneity behavior at the lower concentration of 0.25%, while the material displayed a definite degree of heterogeneity at higher concentrations. The magnitude of high-frequency viscoelastic moduli (|G*(ω)|) for the corn stover CNF is proportional to the 3/4 power of the frequency (ω), which is the semi- flexible polymer behavior. The identified properties of the corn stover CNF will provide us the useful information for utilizing this kind of nanocellulose.

Biography:
Jingyuan Xu earned his Ph.D. degree of biophysics and biophysical chemistry from the Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine. He currently is a research physical scientist at National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. His research is focusing on agricultural biodegradable materials, new food product development, and nano-technology. He has published more than 70 peer- review journal publications and has been invited to present his research at numerous domestic and international conferences.

  • National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
  • Title:Past, Present and Future of Artificial Steak
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Abstract:
Food security and sustainability are the most urgent problems in worldwide. We study the combinations of egg albumen, pea protein, and gellan gum were optimized to fabricate an artificial steak for specific populations. The relationships among the different components on the texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation, viscoelastic properties, and thermal behavior were conducted. 3D printing food was an emerging issue, this study also investigated how to fabricated an artificial steak and mitigate the impacts of meat production. Gellan gum was found to compensate for the proportion of proteins and regulate the instrumental hardness ranged from 453.82 ± 39.75 g to 2515.62 ± 144.55 g, the instrumental chewiness ranged from 156.29 ± 22.77 to 1054.66 ± 85.70 being feasible to regulated by different formulations, and extend to the customized platform and the applications of elderly’ foods. In sustainability orientation, 8.0% egg albumen /9.5% pea protein /0.7% gellan gel was computed as the optimal formulation, and 9.5% egg albumen /5.5% pea protein /0.7% gellan gel was conducted as the optimal solution in marketing orientation. The “Artificial steak” has the potential to improve food security and human well-being, reduce animal suffering, and mitigate most of the environmental impacts associated with meat production.

Biography:
Professor Yung-Kai LIN earned PhD degree from National Chung-Hsing University in 2005. After graduation he had the great fortune to follow Professor Kuroyanagi (Kitasato University, Japan) as post-doctoral fellow and effort to research “multilayer hyaluronic acid artificial skin” and applied on skin reconstruction. Professor LIN started his education career in Chinese Culture University and focused on “Soft tissue regeneration” such as “Intelligent Artificial Vitreous Substitute” and “Biodegradable Botanic Hemostatic Matrix” and earned international patents. He won the prize of “Ten Outstanding Youth Persons” in 2016. Since December 2017 he moved to Chief Operating and Executive Officer of Global Research and Industry Alliance, National Chung-Hsing University and turn his research interest to “Biodesign” and “Functional foods”. He is very humble to make connection between academic and industries and generous share expertise to student and public. Since February 2020, he moves to Institute of Food Safety and Risk Management, National Taiwan Ocean University, continue his research on “Sustainable Food Production” and “Microplastics detection”.

  • Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology, Kenya
  • Title:Compliance of Maize Flour Brands to Food Fortification Standards in Kenya
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Abstract:

In Kenya, micronutrient deficiencies remain a public health challenge with deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, folate, and zinc reported. Food fortification is a cost-effective intervention to reduce micronutrient deficiencies with the potential to reach a large population. Fortification of packaged maize flour in Kenya is mandatory as per the law passed in 2012. In order to assess fortification compliance, regular market surveillance is necessary. The objective of this work was to determine the level of compliance of commercially milled maize flour brands in Kenya to national set food fortification standards.
Five hundred and ninety seven (597) maize flour samples representing diverse brands were randomly collected from 10 counties and sorted to remove duplicate samples with similar batch numbers yielding 312 analytical samples. The samples were analyzed to determine zinc and iron content using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Vitamins were determined using HPLC by isocratic elution for vitamin A and gradient elution for the B vitamins. Compliance is indicated by samples that meet the national food fortification standards for any two micronutrients among iron, zinc and vitamin A.
From the analysis, 33.3%, 33.9% and 29.9% of the samples complied with national fortification standard for iron, zinc, and vitamin A, respectively. The compliance levels for the B vitamins ranged from 9.7% for folic acid to 84.4% for vitamin B1. Overall, compliance to the national food fortification standards was 28% for all the maize flour samples. We conclude that the flours had low compliance levels to the national food fortification standards for maize flour despite the spirited efforts by both government and the private sector players. This scenario is worrying as it indicates that consumers are not getting the desired nutritional benefits from food fortification.

Biography:

Francis Aila is currently a PhD student in Food Science and Nutrition specializing in Food Fortification with a focus on bioavailability of minerals from fortified foods. He has over 15 years in the field of nutrition having worked with the ministry of health, Kenya. He has publications in food safety in peer reviewed journals from his MSc work and nutrition programming from his work at the ministry of health. He has participated in conferences focusing on health and nutrition in Africa.

  • Research Center for Fine Chemistry Srl, Italy
  • Title:A Mass Spectrometry and 1H NMR Study of Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Principles from a Castanea sativa Tannin Employed in Oenology
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Abstract:

The ethanol extract of the commercial tannin Tan’Activ C, (from Castanea sativa wood), employed in oenology, was subjected to chromatography on XAD-16 affording fractions X1–X5, evaluated for total phenols content (GAE), antioxidant activity (DPPH, ORAC), and hypoglycemic activity (α-glucosidase inhibition). Fraction X3 showed GAE, radical scavenging activity, and α-glucosidase inhibition higher than those of the Castanea sativa extract, and was subjected to chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 to obtain fractions S1–S7, analyzed by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS and 1H NMR to identify the main active constituents. In fractions with higher antioxidant activity, gallic acid (4), grandinin (5), valoneic acid dilactone (9), 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-glucose (14), 3,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-glucose (15) and galloyl derivative of valoneic acid dilactone (21) were identified as the major constituents. The highest hypoglycemic activity was found in fractions S6 and especially S7; the major constituents of these fractions are valoneic acid dilactone (9), three tetragalloyl glucose isomers (16–18) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-glucose (23), previously reported as α-glucosidase inhibitors.

  • University of Warsaw, Poland
  • Title:High Temperature Triggers the Antioxidant Action of Two Two Edible Isothiocyanates: Sulforaphane and Erucin. Effect of Sulfenic Acids and Methylsulfinyl Radicals as Radical Trapping Antioxidants
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Abstract:

Sulforaphane (SFN) and erucin (ERN) are isothiocyanates (ITCs) bearing, respectively, methylsulfinyl and methylsulfanyl groups. Their chemopreventive and anticancer activity is attributed to ability to modulate cellular redox status due to induction of Phase 2 cytoprotective enzymes (indirect antioxidant action) but many attempts to connect the bioactivity of ITCs with their radical trapping activity failed. Both ITCs are evolved from their glucosinolates during food processing of Cruciferous vegetables, therefore, we studied antioxidant behaviour of SFN/ERN at elevated temperature in two lipid systems. Neither ERN nor SFN inhibit the oxidation of bulk linolenic acid (below 100C) but both ITCs increase oxidative stability of soy lecithin (above 150C). On the basis of GCMS analysis we verified our preliminary hypothesis [1] about participation of sulfenic acids and methylsulfinyl radicals as radical trapping agents responsible for the antioxidant effect of edible ITCs during thermal oxidation of lipids at elevated temperatures (above 140C).[2]

Bibliography:
[1] Cedrowski, J., Dąbrowa, K., Krogul-Sobczak, A., Litwinienko, G.A lesson learnt from food chemistry-elevated temperature triggers the antioxidant action of two edible isothiocyanates: Erucin and sulforaphane. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 1090. DOI: 10.3390/antiox9111090
[2] Cedrowski, J., Dąbrowa, K., Przybylski, P., Krogul-Sobczak, A., Litwinienko, G. Antioxidant activity of two edible isothiocyanates: Sulforaphane and erucin is due to their thermal decomposition to sulfenic acids and methylsulfinyl radicals. Food Chemistry 2021, 353, 129213. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129213

  • University of Cambridge, UK
  • Title:Nutritional and Functional Properties of Some Local Cultivars of Moringa Oleifera
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Abstract:

This study was carried out to evaluate the nutrient composition and functional properties of dried Moringa oleifera leaves collected from two different ecological zones in Bangladesh, Joypurhat and Mymensingh. The proximate analysis revealed that M. oleifera leaves were rich in protein content, ranging from (22.99 to 29.36%), and low in fat, from (4.03 to 9.51%), fiber, from (6.00 to 9.60%), and ash, from (8.05 to 10.38%). The vitamin C content of fresh M. oleifera leaves ranged from (187.96 to 278.50 mg/100 g), Ca ranged from (1.322 to 2.645%), P ranged from (0.152 to 0.304 g/100 g), and K ranged from (1.317 to 2.025 g/100g). The functional properties included WAC (158.00-415.00%), FC (28.30-117.65 ml/l,) and FS (333.33-1000 ml/l). Together, these findings indicate that M. oleifera leaves are rich in vital phytonutrients, suggesting a promising balance of food ingredients for human and animal diets.

  • Faculty of Sport Sciences, Japan
  • Title:Involvement of Neutrophils in Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and its Prevention
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Abstract:

Neutrophils not only play a critical role in host defense by migrating to the site of infection and producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), but also mediate pathological processes involved in tissue destruction. Therefore, it is important to assess and modulate neutrophil activities. Exhaustive exercise facilitates neutrophil activity, suggesting their involvement with muscle damage [1-4]. However, at that time, we needed to separate neutrophils from whole blood, and great care was needed to do this. Also, it took at least 1 h to adjust a fixed cell concentration of neutrophils for the functional analyses, and some researchers criticized the method, saying that the recovery rate was low and the neutrophil functions were altered from the in vivo environments. Because we observed complex phenomena centered on neutrophils following exercise, some novel technology was required to examine the neutrophil dynamics and functional modulation. Thus, I would like to share some of our research on neutrophils in relation with exercise and muscle damage. I will begin with my early studies on neutrophil functional analyses and a newly developed measurement system [5-7]. Then, some key data about effects of exercise, antioxidant modulation, mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle damage, and possible preventive countermeasures such as functional foods targeting pathogenesis will be described [7-10].

Biography:

Professor ,Cooperative Major in Advanced Health Sciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology and Waseda University (PhD course only: 2010-2013); Adjunct Professor, Institute of Biomedical Innovation, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Australia (2013-2014); President, International Society of Exercise and Immunology (ISEI) (2015-2017); Guest Editor, “Exercise and Inflammation” of Antioxidants (2017-2018); and Guest Editor, “Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Dietary Supplementation and Lifestyle factors” of Antioxidants (2019).

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