Salad dressing is traditionally used as a seasoning to enhance the appetite of consumers due to its creamy mouthfeel and special flavour. Consumers are aware about the cholesterol level in egg yolk and fat’s type applied in dressing products. The aim of this study was to produce low fat and eggless salad dressing with virgin coconut oil (VCO). Hydrocolloids included xanthan gum and modified starch were use as independent variables by response surface methodology (RSM) in order to evaluate its impacts on the viscosity, stability, and firmness of the salad dressing. The findings showed that optimum values for the hydrocolloids of xanthan gum and modified starch were 1.56% and 0.10%, respectively and the optimum experimental values were stability 0.33%, texture 1506.5 g, and viscosity 162.25 mpas. The predicted and experimental data of this optimized formulation had no significant (p>0.05) differences which indicated the desired results from this study. The proximate analysis of the optimized formulation were moisture content 47.91, ash 1.91, fibre 1.57, fat 21.97, protein 1.66, carbohydrate 24.98, and caloric values 296.29. The findings of this study were similar to the commercial products which suggested high potential for using optimum values for the hydrocolloids of xanthan gum and modified starch as egg replacer and VCO in salad dressing to improve the quality and the biological functions of the product.


Nameer Khairullah Mohammed is assistant professor in Food Science & Technology with over 10 years of experience in food science in addition to food technology and food biochemistry. He formerly worked in Tikrit university, Iraq as lecturer. After graduated from the University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia in 2018, he specialized in Food Technology in Iraq. He also holds an assistant professor from Tikrit University. His main research areas are oil extractions, microencapsultion, nanoemulsions, and dairy technology. He is author of over 25 peer-reviewed publications and many book chapters and international conferences.