Propolis is a bee product containing plant resins and beeswax. Propolis and its isolated constituents exert biological effects such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetics, immunomodulatory, wound healing, antitumor and antiulcer. These effects are accounted for substances contained in resins collected by bee foragers from plant exudates or young tissues. In Brazil, several propolis types from stingless bees (meliponines) and Africanized honey bees are produced in commercial scale. An emerging market of propolis from stingless bees is gaining relevance among apiculturists in Brazil. Several papers have investigated the composition and medicinal properties of meliponine propolis from several parts of the country. Comparing with honey bee propolis, similarities and differences have been noticed in the composition of Brazilian meliponine propolis. Two types of Brazilian propolis from honey bees stand out due to the amounts produced and commercialized, both in the domestic and international markets: a) green propolis, produced in southeast and Central Brazil; b) red propolis, from northeast mangroves. The former contains resin from Baccharis dracunculifolia and the latte, resins from Dalbergia ecastapyllum. Artepillin c, from Brazilian green propolis, is one the two propolis constituents most studied for their biological properties. Red propolis contains chiefly chalcones, isoflavones and pterocarpans. Other types of Brazilian honey bee propolis have been characterized: a) green propolis, derived from Mimosa tenuiflora, produced in dry forests from the northeast semi-arid; dark propolis from northeast; b) black propolis from the Amazonian region, containing resin derived from Clusia species; c) yellow propolis from the “Pantanal” biome (southwest); d) brown propolis from the south, with varied composition and resins from Araucaria, Baccharis and Populus. A propolis produced in the Ceará state (northeast) contains triterpenoids and of phenolic substances, mainly flavonoids, such as chalcones, flavanones and flavonols (derivatives of kaempferol, quercetin, isorhametin and myricetin). The propolis extract has high antioxidant activity. Several constituents isolated flavonoids from Ceará propolis have weak anti-HIV activity (17%-44% inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase), while isorhamnetin has moderate activity (57% inhibition).

Antonio Salatino (AS) is Senior Professor at the Department of Botany of the University of São Paulo (USP). He got Master’s Degree and PhD in the Institute of Biosciences of USP, with advisory by Prof. Otto Richard Gottlieb. He carried out post-doctorate programs at the University of Austin (Texas), with Dr. Tom J. Mabry (chemistry of flavonoids) and at the University of Athens (Georgia), with Dr. David E. Giannasi (molecular phylogeny). AS has been a collegiate member at Brazilian institutions for research fostering. He was coordinator of the post-graduation program in Botany at USP and head of its Botany Department. AS pioneered in Brazil some research topics, such as systematic studies of surface wax constituents and flavonoids. He was also one the first researchers to develop studies of plant molecular