Consumption of pasteurized cow milk is a novel behavior of humans. Pasteurization of milk, a
gentle thermal processing, was introduced with the intention to reduce pathogenic bacterial
growth butto protect valuable bioactive ingredients of milk. In contrast to ultraheat treatment
(UHT), pasteurization protects bovine milk exosomes (MEX) and their bioactive microRNA
(miR) cargo. Translational evidence implicates that human MEX miRs promote pancreatic
beta-cell growth and mTORC1 activation associated with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin
secretion (GSIS). Human MEX miR signaling terminates after weaning associated with a
decrease in mTORC1 and increase in AMPK activity enhancing GSIS. There is critical concern
that continued intake of bovine MEX miRs promote beta-cell de-differentiation back to the
postnatal state thereby enhancing beta-cell endoplasmic reticulum stress with apoptosis
resulting in type 2 diabetes mellitus. MEX miRs of cow milk are a health hazard and have to
be eliminated from the human food chain.


Medical studies at the University of Münster. Postdoctoral fellowship at the Cardiovascular
Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco. Clinical specialization in
Dermatology at the University of Düsseldorf. Felix-Hoppe-Seyler-Price 1989 of the German
Society for Laboratory Medicine. Since 1991 senior lecturer and professor at the Department
of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück.
Research interests: Lipoprotein, epidermal and sebaceous lipid metabolism, retinoid biology,
diabetes mellitus, milk miR signaling in health and disease