Diabetes becomes epidemic in worldwide countries. Nine out of ten diabetic patients are type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D is characterized by insulin resistance and obesity. Uncontrolled diabetes leads serious consequences including heart attack, stroke, chronic renal failure, blindness and low limb amputation. Diabetes often requires lifetime treatment. Most of hypoglycemic medications have side effects. Natural foods or nutraceuticals with hypoglycemic potential are expected to provide a safer management for diabetic patients. Saskatoon berry is a traditional food of First Nations people in North America, and has abundant amounts of anthocyanins, including cyanidin-3-glucose (C3G). Our previous studies demonstrated Saskatoon berry powder (SBp) attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation, but did not alter glucose metabolism in genetic db/db diabetic mice. We recently examined the effects of SBp and C3G on glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, vascular inflammation, and intestinal microbiota in diet-induced insulin resistant mice, a model for T2D. Male C57 BL/6J mice were fed control diet, high fat-high sucrose (HFHS) diet, HFHS+5% SBp (HFHS+B) or HFHS+C3G in a dosage comparable to that in 5% SBp for 12-15 weeks. The composition of bacterial community in mouse stool was characterized using the Illumina sequencing of V4 region of 16S rRNA gene. HFHS diet increased body weight, fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, monocyte adhesion, tumor necrosis factor-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor in plasma or aortae, but not body weights, compared to the control diet. HFHS+B or HFHS+C3G diet postponed the increase in body weight, suppressed HFHS diet-induced disorders in insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and vascular inflammation. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes in the HFHS group was higher than that in the control group (p<0.01), and that in the HFHS+B or HFHS+C3G group was lower than that in the HFHS group (p<0.05). The abundances of S24-7 family bacteria negatively correlated with all tested metabolic or inflammatory variables and body weights of mice. The results suggest that Saskatoon berry and its component, C3G, are able to reduce HFHS diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and vascular inflammation in mice with T2D. The beneficial effects of SBp and C3G may result, at least in part, from their impact on gut microbiota. Biography:
Dr. Garry Shen is a Tenured Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, and Adjunct professor in Departments of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences in University of Manitoba. He received his doctoral degrees in Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and received research trainings in University of Iowa, Cleveland Clinic Research Institute, University of Alberta and Joslin Diabetes Center in Harvard Medical School. He has been a faculty member in University of Manitoba since 1991 and currently served as the Co-Chair of Endocrine Research Group and the Associate Director of Diabetes Research Group in the University of Manitoba. He has published >130 full sizes paper or books and >180 abstracts. He has received a numbers of career awards including Alberta Heritage Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, New Investigator Award from Canadian Lipoprotein Conference and Iacocca Visiting Professor Award from Joslin Diabetes Center. He is serving as the Editor-in-Chief of Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets Journal and National Counselor of Canadian Society of Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. His research program has been supported by Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Public Health Agency of Canada, Diabetes Canada, the Lawson Foundation, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.